The Science Behind Pseudoephedrine
When you have a cold or an allergy attack, your white blood cells gather in your nasal passages and sinuses. This causes nasal membranes to swell and increases mucus production. Pseudoephedrine constricts these blood vessels, which decreases drainage.
But those same constricted vessels might also increase your blood pressure and heart rate.
Pharmacist Kayla Ryan explains the mechanism of pseudoephedrine. Pseudoephedrine is chemically similar to adrenaline, so the body recognizes it as adrenaline, causing the blood pressure and heart rate to increase.
She refers to one of the last major studies of the effects of pseudoephedrine on blood pressure, which took place in 2005. This study found that pseudoephedrine increased systolic blood pressure by one point on average, while heart rate increased by an average of three beats per minute.
Ryan adds that the immediate-release products had a greater impact on heart rate and blood pressure than their 12 hour or 24 hour extended-release counterparts, which showed a smaller increase in blood pressure.
In 2005, the FDA passed the Combat Methamphetamine Act, which requires pharmacies to sell all medications containing pseudoephedrine behind the counter. At your local drugstore, youll find cards in the cold and flu aisle with information for these medications. You can take the card to the pharmacist, who is required to scan your drivers license before purchase.
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How Do Anticholinergics Work To Improve Asthma Control
Tiotropium bromide is a long-acting anticholinergic medication. Anticholinergics relax and enlarge the airways in the lungs, making breathing easier . Tiotropium bromide is a maintenance medication used once a day along with other maintenance drugs when tighter control is needed for symptom relief . It is not a rescue inhaler. This drug may be used by individuals age 6 and older who have asthma.
How Does Food Affect Breath
Basically, all the food eaten begins to be broken down in your mouth. Also, foods are absorbed into your bloodstream and move to the lungs, affecting the air you exhale. If you eat foods with strong odors , brushing and flossing — even mouthwash — merely cover up the odor temporarily. The odor will not go away completely until the foods have passed through your body. Other common foods that can cause bad breath include:
- Orange juice or soda
Likewise, dieters who donât eat often enough can have bad breath. When your body breaks down fat, the process releases chemicals that can give your breath an unpleasant smell.
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Is There A Right Way To Blow Your Nose
If you have a stuffy nose, trying to force yourself to blow your nose could make it worse. The best thing to do is to blow one side of your nose at a time gently into a tissue. You might want to first use some type of nasal rinse to loosen any material in your nose before blowing. Make sure you dispose of the tissue and then clean your hands with soap and water or an antimicrobial sanitizer.
How To Tell If You Have A Thyroid Condition
Testing for a thyroid condition is relatively straightforward. An at-home thyroid blood test that measures thyroid-stimulating hormone , free T3, free T4, and TPO antibodies can reveal a lot about your thyroid health. Additionally, a review of your symptoms is also helpful in diagnosing a thyroid condition.
Common symptoms of hypothyroidism include:
- Fatigue and sluggishness
- Dry skin and brittle nails
- Irregular or heavy periods
If you do have hypothyroidism, you work with your doctor who will likely prescribe a thyroid hormone replacement medication to replace the thyroid hormone that is lacking or absent in your body.
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How Do I Prevent Acute Sinusitis
Do not smoke. Smoking is not good for you or for people around you, since this can cause mucous to become clogged in the nose/sinuses. Avoid being around second-hand smoke, as well as other triggers like animal dander, dust, mold and pollen. Take pains to prevent sinus and other infections by:
- Washing your hands well before and after eating and after using the bathroom.
- Staying away from sick people.
- Treating your allergies, possibly with nasal steroid therapy or immunotherapy .
- Keeping your body and your immune system in good shape by eating well and staying hydrated.
- Using a humidifier if your house is dry or an air purifier. Make sure to clean your equipment regularly.
- Irrigating your nose when necessary with a saline rinse.
Urgent Advice: Call 111 For Advice Now If:
- you take too much pseudoephedrine
Taking too much pseudoephedrine can be dangerous.
It can make you restless or your heartbeat fast, and make you feel sick or vomit. You may also have difficulty peeing.
Go to 111.nhs.uk or call 111.
If you need to go to A& E, do not drive yourself. Get someone else to drive you or call for an ambulance.
Take the pseudoephedrine packet or leaflet inside it, plus any remaining medicine, with you.
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Yoga Can Help Drain Mucus From Sinus Passageways
If you are in the midst of a sinus infection, a supported yoga pose where your head is elevated will help you feel better without putting too much pressure on your sinuses, says Leslie Kazadi, a certified yoga therapist who teaches around Los Angeles and online at YogisAnonymous.com.
One pose Kazadi suggests is Supported Reclined Cobblers Pose.
How to Try Supported Reclined Cobblers Yoga Pose
Why Do Poor Habits Cause Bad Breath
If you don’t brush and floss teeth daily, food particles can remain in your mouth, promoting bacterial growth between teeth, around the gums, and on the tongue. This causes bad breath. Inflammation of the gums from poor dental hygiene can also cause bad breath.
In addition, odor-causing bacteria and food particles can cause bad breath if dentures are not properly cleaned.
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What Are Nasal Polyps
Nasal polyps are common, noncancerous, teardrop-shaped growths that form in the nose or sinuses. Theyâre usually found around the area where the sinuses open into the nasal cavity. Mature ones look like peeled grapes.
Often linked to allergies or asthma, they may cause no symptoms, especially if they’re small and donât need treatment. Larger ones can block normal drainage from the sinuses. When too much mucus builds up in the sinuses, they can become infected.
Nasal polyps arenât painful to the touch. Medications or surgery can treat most. They may come back, though..
What Are The Sinuses How Many Do We Have
A sinus is a hollow, air-filled cavity. For the purposes of this article, a sinus will refer to those hollow cavities that are in the skull and connected to the nasal airway by a narrow hole in the bone . Normally all sinuses are open to the nasal airway through an ostium. Humans have four pair of these cavities each referred to as the:
The four pairs of sinuses are often described as a unit and termed the “paranasal sinuses.” The cells of the inner lining of each sinus are mucus-secreting cells, epithelial cells, and some cells that are part of the immune system .
Functions of the sinuses include humidifying and warming inspired air, insulation of surrounding structures , increasing voice resonance, and as buffers against facial trauma. The sinuses decrease the weight of the skull. If the inflammation hinders the clearance of mucous or blocks the natural ostium, the inflammation may progress into a bacterial infection.
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What Is The Treatment For Sinus Infections And Sinusitis
- Systemic steroids
- A combination there several
What Are the Side Effects of Nasal and Oral Decongestants?
Both nasal and oral decongestants have side effects, which include:
- Increased heart rate
- Urinary problems, especially prostate disorders
Combining decongestants with OTC or prescribed medications with similar side effects may cause dangerous complications.
Anatomy Of The Paranasal Sinuses
The paranasal sinuses comprise four pairs of sinuses that surround the nose and drain into the nasal cavity by way of narrow channels called ostia . Mucus leaving the frontal and maxillary sinuses drains through the ethmoid sinuses , so a backup in the ethmoids is likely to clog the other two types of sinuses. The sphenoid sinuses are located deep in the skull, behind the eyes. Sinusitis develops when one or more sinuses become blocked.
There are millions of bacteria in our noses, and most of the time, they’re harmless. Even when a few creep into the sinuses, they don’t cause trouble, as long as they keep draining into the nose along with mucus. But if sinus drainage is blocked, glands in the sinuses continue to produce mucus, and the resulting pool of backed-up mucus provides what Dr. Metson calls “the perfect culture medium.” The bacteria grow out of control, causing infection, and the immune system kicks off an inflammatory response. The result: swelling, which causes and facial pain mucus buildup, which produces congestion and an influx of white blood cells to fight the bacteria, which thickens the mucus and may tint it yellow or green. Other symptoms include loss of smell or taste, cough, bad breath, fever, toothache, and fullness in the ears.
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Natural Remedies For Sinus Congestion
When you’re feeling stuffed up and miserable, getting to the drugstore seems almost impossible. Fortunately for you, there are a number of home remedies for sinus congestion relief, here’s three:
1. Humidity:Keeping your nasal passages moist when you’re experiencing sinus congestion may help to relieve that “stuffy” feeling. To do this, apply a warm, wet towel against your face or run hot water in the shower to unblock the sinuses. You could also use a humidifier for the same purpose.
2. Neti pot: A neti pot looks like a miniature teapot with a long spout. With the help of saline or a saltwater solution, these tiny nasal irrigation devices are used to treat congested sinuses, allergies, and the common cold. You can purchase a neti pot online or at your nearest health food or drugstore. Note of caution: Tap water isn’t safe to use as it’s not filtered or treated and may contain material that could cause infection or irritation.
3. Aromatherapy: Aromatherapy is a holistic healing treatment that uses essential oils to reduce pain or improve sleep. While there’s still research that needs to be done, some studies suggest specific essential oils may relieve symptoms of sinus congestion. According to the National Association for Holistic Aromatherapy , 1,8 cineole, the main component of eucalyptus oil, has been proven to clear airways of mucus and is a natural cough suppressant.
Keeping Kidneys Safe: Smart Choices About Medicines
On this page:
ACE inhibitors and ARBs are two types of blood pressure medicine that may slow the loss of kidney function and delay kidney failure. You can tell if youre taking one of these medicines by its generic name. ACE inhibitors end in pril and ARBs have generic names that end in sartan for example, lisinopril and losartan.
You may also take a diuretic, sometimes called a water pill, to meet your blood pressure goals.
The information below explains
- actions you can take to keep your kidneys safe while taking these blood pressure medicines
- why you sometimes need to take special care with medicines for example, when youre sick, dehydrated, or thinking about whether or not to take an over-the-counter medicine
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How Is Sinusitis Diagnosed
Symptoms of sinusitis mimic a cold in the early stages and diagnosis can be difficult. However, sinusitis tends to persist long after cold symptoms have resolved and symptoms can last for three weeks or more. Sinus infections are also more likely to cause symptoms such as facial or tooth pain, green nasal discharge, and fever.
Your doctor will ask you about your symptoms and any history of illness leading up to this episode of sinusitis. The doctor will also perform a simple office examination and look into your ears, nose and throat, and take your temperature.
Other examinations or procedures may be undertaken to rule out other conditions or if the diagnosis is uncertain.
What Is The Function Of The Sinuses
The human skull contains four major pairs of hollow air-filled cavities called sinuses. These are connected to the space between the nostrils and the nasal passage . Sinuses help insulate the skull, reduce its weight, and allow the voice to resonate within it. The four major pairs of sinuses are:
The sinuses contain defenses against viruses and bacteria . The sinuses are covered with a mucous layer and cells that contain tiny hairs on their surface that help trap and propel bacteria and pollutants outward.
Acute sinusitis typically lasts less than eight weeks or occurs no more than three times per year with each episode lasting no longer than 10 days. Medications are generally effective against acute sinusitis. Successful treatment counteracts damage done to the mucous lining of the sinuses and surrounding bone of the skull.
Chronic or recurring sinusitis lasts longer than eight weeks or occurs more than four times per year, with symptoms usually lasting more than 20 days.
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Can Surgery Cure Chronic Sinusitis
Doctors are reluctant to talk about cures because this implies a guarantee that the condition will completely go away and never come back after treatment. Instead, scientific studies concentrate on ‘outcome’measures’. These studies focus particularly on symptoms and whether or not they improve after treatment. In the case of chronic sinusitis, for example, such symptoms would include sense of smell, nasal obstruction and any associated condition such as asthma. In one large study, 8 out of 10 people said their symptoms improved after sinus surgery.
Which Specialties Of Doctors Treat Sinus Infections And Sinusitis
- Sinusitis is often first diagnosed by a general practitioner, primary care physician, or internal medicine physician. A pediatrician may diagnose sinus infections in children.
- If sinusitis is chronic or severe, you may be referred to an otolaryngologist, also called an ear, nose, and throat specialist . If your sinusitis is caused by allergies, you may be referred to an allergist.
- If you experience an emergency due to your sinusitis, go to the Emergency Department at the nearest hospital.
Treatment For Sinusitis From A Gp
If you have sinusitis, a GP may be able to recommend other medicines to help with your symptoms, such as:
- steroid nasal sprays or drops â to reduce the swelling in your sinuses
- antihistamines â if an allergy is causing your symptoms
- antibiotics â if a bacterial infection is causing your symptoms and you’re very unwell or at risk of complications
You might need to take steroid nasal sprays or drops for a few months. They sometimes cause irritation, sore throats or nosebleeds.
A GP may refer you to an ear, nose and throat specialist if, for example, you:
- still have sinusitis after 3 months of treatment
- keep getting sinusitis
- only have symptoms on 1 side of your face
They may also recommend surgery in some cases.
How Can Low Humidity Cause Sinus Problems
If the air you breathe in is too dry, the mucus in your sinuses and nose wont flow normally, and your sinuses wont drain as well as they should.
Dry air affects the sinuses because it harms the cilia that filter out the debris and bacteria in the mucous membrane lining the sinus and nasal cavities.
Therefore, adding moisture to the air is generally good for sinus health.
The nose is meant to provide humidity and warmth and clean the air that passes through it.
Forced heating systems in your homes and workplaces frequently over-dry the nasal passages, aggravating allergies and sinusitis.
Humidified air is good for sinusitis, especially in the winter.
Dry sinuses are 50% more likely to attract sinusitis-causing bacteria than moist sinuses.
Dry air worsens the sinuses because it damages the cilia that help filter out the bacteria and debris in the mucous membrane lining the nasal and sinus cavities.
The atmosphere can also become especially dry if you are exposed to air conditioning, wood-burning stoves or forced-air heating.
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