What Are The Causes Of Sinusitis
The sinuses are lined with membranes that produce mucus. When someone has a cold or allergies, the nasal passages as well as the sinus tissues become swollen and make more mucus. As a result, mucus that normally flows smoothly can get blocked and become trapped in the sinuses. It becomes a breeding ground where bacteria, viruses, and fungi can thrive, resulting in sinusitis.
Sinus Infections In Children Symptoms And Treatments
Its not unusual for small children to have runny noses, which is why parents find it helpful to always have a pack of pocket tissues on hand. The runny nose could be a sign of allergies, a head cold, or even playing outside in the cold weather.
But when a runny nose is paired with other symptoms, it could indicate that you need to schedule an appointment with an ENT.
Ear Infections In Babies And Toddlers
Ear infections in babies and toddlers are extremely common. In fact, according to the National Institutes of Health, five out of six children will experience an ear infection before their third birthday.
“Many parents are concerned that an ear infection will affect their child’s hearing irreversiblyor that an ear infection will go undetected and untreated,” says David Tunkel, M.D., Johns Hopkins Medicine pediatric otolaryngologist . “The good news is that most ear infections go away on their own, and those that don’t are typically easy to treat.”
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Where Can I Find Additional Information About Ear Infections
The NIDCD maintains a directory of organizations that provide information on the normal and disordered processes of hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, and language.
Use the following keywords to help you search for organizations that can answer questions and provide printed or electronic information on ear infections:
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of bacterial pneumonia) and Candidiasis that may be affecting the eosophagus, stomach and possibly blood stream. Doxycycline is the choice antibiotic for treating Mycoplasmas. Theres also a suspicion of Mycotoxins, following the possible Candidiasis. infection. Strict avoidance of sugars, flours,grains, cereals
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What Is Bacterial Sinusitis
Bacterial sinusitis is sinusitis caused by bacteria being trapped in the sinuses. Its a secondary infection, and the most common types of it are Streptococcus pneumonia, Haemophilus influenza, and Moraxella catarrhalis.
Heres what you have to know about it:
- Accompanies colds and symptoms last for more than 10 days.
- Fever spans for 3 to 4 days in a row.
- A major headache around the eyes which gets worse gradually.
- Thick-yellow nasal discharge.
- Redness around the eyes all day long.
Bacterial sinusitis usually requires Computed Tomographic Scans to confirm the diagnosis and requires antibiotics for treatment.
Check If You Have Sinusitis
Sinusitis is common after a cold or flu.
Symptoms of sinusitis include:
- pain, swelling and tenderness around your cheeks, eyes or forehead
- a reduced sense of smell
- green or yellow mucus from your nose
- a sinus headache
Signs of sinusitis in young children may also include irritability, difficulty feeding, and breathing through their mouth.
The sinuses are small, empty spaces behind your cheekbones and forehead that connect to the inside of the nose.
Sinusitis causes the lining of the sinuses to swell up.
This stops mucus draining into your nose and throat properly, making you feel blocked up.
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What Parents Need To Know About Sinus Infections In Children
A sinus infection means that an infection has developed in the sinus cavities. Often, the child has allergies or a cold first. Then, a secondary infection occurs.
Just because the mucus coming from your childs nose is green or yellow doesnt necessarily mean that there is a sinus infection. The only way to determine an accurate diagnosis is by working with an experienced doctor.
Sinus infections can be either viral or bacterial. In fact, you might be surprised to learn that a sinus infection is viral 9 out of 10 times, which means that antibiotics wont help.
What Research Is Being Done On Middle Ear Infections
Researchers sponsored by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders are exploring many areas to improve the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of middle ear infections. For example, finding better ways to predict which children are at higher risk of developing an ear infection could lead to successful prevention tactics.
Another area that needs exploration is why some children have more ear infections than others. For example, Native American and Hispanic children have more infections than do children in other ethnic groups. What kinds of preventive measures could be taken to lower the risks?
Doctors also are beginning to learn more about what happens in the ears of children who have recurring ear infections. They have identified colonies of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, called biofilms, that are present in the middle ears of most children with chronic ear infections. Understanding how to attack and kill these biofilms would be one way to successfully treat chronic ear infections and avoid surgery.
Understanding the impact that ear infections have on a childs speech and language development is another important area of study. Creating more accurate methods to diagnose middle ear infections would help doctors prescribe more targeted treatments. Researchers also are evaluating drugs currently being used to treat ear infections, and developing new, more effective and easier ways to administer medicines.
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Other Treatments For Pediatric Sinus Infections
Help your child stay comfortable through symptom management. A few at-home remedies and doctor recommendations can alleviate symptoms and promote a faster recovery:
- Warm Washcloth: When the child is experiencing a headache or sinus pain, a warm washcloth on the face can help. The warmth helps to soothe the sinuses and promote drainage.
- Humidifier: Place a cool-mist humidifier in the childs room while they are sleeping. Avoid hot water vaporizers since they can cause burns and injury.
- Nasal Flushes: If the child is old enough, then nasal saline flushes can be helpful to clear out the sinuses and eliminate mucus.
- Medications: Certain types of medication can be helpful for symptom management. Nasal steroid sprays might be prescribed for severe or long-lasting sinusitis.
- Underlying Cause: The doctor will help by addressing the underlying cause of the sinus infection. For example, if the child suffers from seasonal allergies, then antihistamines might be necessary to reduce the risk of sinus infections in the future.
When Should I Call The Doctor
- a cold that lasts for more than 710 days without improvement
- a cold that seems to be getting worse after 7 days of symptoms
- symptoms of allergies that don’t clear with the usual allergy medicine
Also call if your child shows any other signs of worsening sinusitis, such as:
- pain or pressure in the cheeks or around the eyes
- swelling around the eye
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Schedule An Appointment With Our Pediatric Ent Specialists In Birmingham
Is your child suffering from the symptoms of chronic sinusitis? Our expert team of physicians can help diagnose and provide customized treatment plans for your child. Through our teams use of the Childrens of Alabama Hospital and the use of an outpatient center near the central Birmingham hospital, patients are given the top of the line, easy-to-access medical care for their needs. To learn more about sinusitis or to schedule an appointment, contact our Birmingham office today.
For your convenience, please fill out the form below to schedule an appointment.
A member of our team will contact you to confirm your desired day and time or offer an alternative day and time that accommodates your schedule.
What Is The Treatment For Sinusitis
Specific treatment for sinusitis will be determined by your child’s health care provider based on:
Your child’s age, overall health, and medical history
How sick he or she is
Your child’s tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
How long the condition is expected to last
Your opinion or preference
Treatment of sinusitis may include the following:
Antibiotics, as determined by your child’s physician
Cool humidifier in your child’s room
Nasal spray to reduce inflammation
Medications to treat GERD
Surgery to remove the adenoids
Endoscopic sinus surgery
Antibiotics may not be given for the first 10 to 14 days, unless severe symptoms develop, such as: fever, facial pain or tenderness, or swelling around the eye. Surgery should be considered only if other treatments have failed.
You may need to take your child to an allergist/immunologist, particularly if he or she has chronic or recurrent sinusitis or has had sinus surgery, but still experience sinusitis.
Antihistamines do not help the symptoms of sinusitis unless it is caused by an allergy.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Pediatric Sinusitis
The following symptoms may indicate a sinus infection in your child:
- A cold lasting more than 10 to 14 days
- Low- or even high-grade fever
- Thick yellow-green nasal drainage for at least three days in a row
- Post-nasal drip, sometimes with sore throat, cough, bad breath, nausea and/or vomiting
- Headache, usually in children age six or older
- Irritability or fatigue
Signs And Symptoms That Your Child Has Chronic Sinusitis
If your childs sinuses are healthy, they are normally filled with air. But common Birmingham allergens or a bad cold can cause them to become full of mucus which can allow bacteria to grow, resulting in a sinus infection.
Sinus infections, however, shouldnt happen often. If your child seems to be frequently suffering from painful swelling of the sinuses for long periods of time, he or she may have chronic sinusitis. And we all know how a constant runny nose, headache, and fever can be tough on your child and you as concerned parents.
From nosebleeds to sleep apnea and sinusitis, the expert ENT specialists at Pediatric ENT Associates in Birmingham are well-versed in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of nasal conditions. PENTAs group of doctors are all fully board-certified, and with years of experience in providing effective treatments tailored to the unique needs of children, you can rest assured that only the best care for your child is provided.
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Fast Facts About Ear Infections
Most ear infections hurt. The pain builds as the pressure in the ear builds, from a dull ache to a sharp stabbing pain. The pressure is relieved intermittently, so the pain comes in waves. The pain is worse at night. Most ear infections occur in children under age two. The best clue is evidence of pain, such as crying or screaming (usually less
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What Can I Do To Prevent Sinusitis In The Future
Since sinusitis is often a secondary infection, you may be able to prevent it by treating your child’s colds or allergies differently.
- Keep your home moist when your child has a cold. Moisture helps keep the sinus linings and secretions thin. A humidifier can help â just be sure to clean it regularly to prevent mold growth.
- Keep your child well hydrated, since drinking adequate liquids has the same benefit.
- Speak to your doctor, if you suspect that your child has allergies. She may be able to recommend treatment options, both environmental and pharmaceutical. Long-term maintenance of allergies can go a long way toward preventing future sinus infections.
- Keep your home clear of known allergens, such as cigarette smoke, pet dander, and dust, since all of these can irritate the nasal passages and contribute to sinusitis. See our allergies article for tips on how to keep your home allergen-free.
If your child ends up with sinusitis, you can find comfort in the fact that it’s a common condition â an estimated 37 million people a year get sinus infections â and there are plenty of treatment and prevention options.
What Is Sinus Infection
Sinuses are small air spaces in the bones around the nose. Four sets of hollow spaces are located in the cheekbones, forehead, on the sides of the nose bridge, and behind nasal passages in front of the brain.
Sinuses in the cheekbones are called maxillary sinus, forehead frontal sinus, behind nasal passages ethmoid sinuses, and deep in the brain sphenoid sinus.
The sinus cavities only develop with age they are not yet present in the newborn: The maxillary sinus develops around three to five years, the frontal sinus closer to five years and the deeper located sphenoid sinus only in adolescence.
The infection attacks these air spaces in the bones, and sometimes they are swollen. In simple terms, sinusitis is an inflammation of the lining of the nose and sinuses. The mucous membranes that line the mouth and the nose also line the sinuses .
Sinusitis is an inflammation of the sinus due to viral or bacterial infections. Depending on the duration for which the symptoms stay, it can be categorized into the following types :
- Acute: Acute sinusitis is a condition where the symptoms last less than four weeks and improve with treatment.
- Sub-acute: The symptoms last four to eight weeks and do not subside with initial treatment.
- Chronic: This is a condition of repeated acute sinusitis or previous infections, which were inadequately treated. The symptoms last more than eight weeks.
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Which Children Are At Risk For Sinusitis
A sinus infection sometimes happens after an upper respiratory infection or common cold. The cold causes swelling that can block the opening of the sinuses. This can cause a sinus infection. Allergies can also lead to sinusitis because of swelling and increased mucus. Other possible conditions that can lead to sinusitis include:
Abnormal shape of the nose
Infection from a tooth
Foreign object in the nose
Birth defect with abnormality of the roof of the mouth
Problem with stomach acids
Cystic fibrosis and immunodeficiency syndromes
Immune problems or antibody deficiencies are risks for chronic sinus conditions.
What Is Sinusitis In Children
Sinusitis is an infection of the sinuses. These infections often happen after a cold or with allergies. There are 3 types of sinusitis:
Short-term . Symptoms of this type of infection last less than 12 weeks and get better with the correct treatment.
Long-term . These symptoms last longer than 12 weeks.
Recurrent. This means the infection comes back again and again. It means 3 or more episodes of acute sinusitis in a year.
The sinuses are air-filled spaces near the nose. They are lined with mucous membranes. There are 4 different sinuses:
Ethmoid sinus. Located around the bridge of the nose. This sinus is present at birth, and continues to grow.
Maxillary sinus. Located around the cheeks. This sinus is also present at birth, and continues to grow.
Frontal sinus. Located in the area of the forehead. This sinus does not develop until around age 7.
Sphenoid sinus. Located deep behind the nose. This sinus does not develop until the teen years.
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How Do I Know If My Child Has A Sinus Infection
It’s likely your child has sinusitis if he has some combination of the following symptoms:
- Nasal congestion that persists for ten days or more
- Thick yellow or green nasal discharge
- A cough during the day that gets worse at night
- Swelling around the nose and eyes that almost looks like a shiner
- Pain in the jaw or behind the forehead or nose
- An ongoing low-grade fever
If your child has any of these symptoms, or if you suspect he has a sinus infection for another reason, call your child’s doctor.
Symptoms Of Sinus Infection
According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, cold symptoms such as nasal discharge and a cough that lasts more than ten days without any improvement, indicate a sinus infection .
Check for the following symptoms of sinus infection in children:
Note: A low-grade fever is a body temperature above 100.4°F or 38°C and below 103°F or 39.4°C.
In rare cases, a bacterial sinus infection could spread to the central nervous system or the eye, showing symptoms such as:
- Increasing irritability
- Swelling and/or redness around the eyes
- Sensitivity to light
Keep a check on your childs symptoms and do not delay in consulting a pediatrician. In case your child has been suffering from chronic sinusitis, immediate medical intervention is warranted. Chronic sinusitis can significantly impact the quality of life.
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Why Choose Children’s Colorado For Your Child’s Sinusitis
The Sinusitis Clinic at Children’s Colorado has been operating for over 20 years. It is staffed by a pediatric otolaryngologist, an infectious diseases specialist and an allergist/immunologist. This group of specialists has an interest in this disease and expertise in this field.
- The Academy of Pediatrics Healthy Children website provides information on how to tell the difference between colds and sinus infections.