When Does Antibiotic Resistance Occur
Antibiotic resistance occurs in a persons own body and within the community when certain drugs no longer work for a specific type of germ. This can occur when bacteria change in response to exposure to antibiotics so that the antibiotics no longer work efficiently against the bacteria.
Therefore, allergists and other specialists recommend limiting the use of antibiotics unless:
- Symptoms last over seven to 10 days
- Specific symptoms are present
- A fever is present
How Much Should I Take
Youll likely be prescribed a seven-day course of clindamycin for a tooth infection. On each of those seven days, youll likely need to take a dose every six hours or so.
There may be one or two capsules in a dose. Be sure to carefully follow the instructions provided with your prescription.
You can take clindamycin either before or after eating. Some people experience throat irritation when taking clindamycin, but following the dose with a full glass of water can help you avoid this.
Can I Take Clindamycin If Im Pregnant Or Breastfeeding
It is not known whether this medicine will harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant.
Clindamycin can pass into breast milk and may cause side effects in the nursing baby. If you are breastfeeding while taking this medicine, call your doctor if your baby has diaper rash, redness or white patches in the mouth or throat, stomach discomfort, or diarrhea that is watery or bloody.
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Clindamycin Vs Azithromycin: Side Effects
The side effects caused by azithromycin and clindamycin are slightly different.
While both drugs can cause gastrointestinal side effects, they can also cause other adverse effects. Common side effects associated with azithromycin include:
- Diarrhea or loose stools
- Kidney problems
- Esophageal ulcers
Clindamycin and azithromycin have the potential to disrupt the normal balance of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract, particularly in the colon.
This can occur because antibiotics often kill the healthy bacteria in the body in addition to harmful bacteria.
Certain bacteria that are known to cause inflammation of the colon, including Clostridium difficile, are particularly susceptible to disruption resulting from the use of antibiotics.
If you start to experience signs of pseudomembranous colitis, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and shock, during or after treatment with clindamycin or azithromycin, make sure to seek medical attention immediately.
This may not be a complete list of adverse events.
Which Types Of Doctors Treat Sinusitis And Sinus Infections
- Many sinus infections can be treated by your primary care physician or an Internal Medicine doctor.
- However, it is not unusual to consult an ENT specialist, infectious disease specialist, or an allergist or immunologist.
- With some complex sinus infections, a surgeon who specializes in sinus surgery may be necessary to consult.
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What Antibiotics For Sinus Infection May Be Prescribed As Treatment
Each antibiotic is prescribed according to your medical history, and suspected bacterial cause. Given that antibiotics have been overused in the past, many bacteria infecting the sinuses are resistant to antibiotics.
Commonly prescribed antibiotics for sinus infection may include:
Sore Throat Ear Or Sinus Infection You May Be Getting The Wrong Antibiotics
They think part of the problem is that patients ask for easy-to-remember names such as Z-Pack and the study found that azithromycin, the Zithromax drug that gives Z-Packs the name, is among the most commonly misused drugs.
Overall, only 52 percent of patients treated with antibiotics for sinus infections, middle ear infections and pharyngitis received the first-line treatments recommended by prescribing guidelines, Dr. David Hyun, an infectious disease specialist at the Pew Charitable Trusts, told NBC News.
This is on top of findings released earlier this year that show at least a third of people who get antibiotics dont even need them. Taken together, the two studies show a lot of bad prescribing of antibiotics, the researchers wrote in the full report published in the Journal of the American Medical Associations JAMA internal Medicine.
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Whats The Difference Between Antibiotic Solutions And Suspensions
Solutions are liquids where the active ingredients are dissolved. Suspensions are liquids in which the particles are suspended, or scattered throughout the liquid, and not quite dissolved. Some medications are stable as a suspension but not as a solution.
The main difference between the two is how irritating they might be. Antibiotic solutions are generally more irritating than suspensions because solutions have a more acidic pH of 3-4, whereas suspensions have a less acidic pH of 5.
Solutions may also contain alcohol to help kill bacteria, but the alcohol can be extremely irritating when these solutions are applied.
How To Use Vaginal Creams And Suppositories
Topical clindamycin can help treat bacterial infections in the vagina.
The cream comes with an applicator. A person can insert the amount of one applicator, which is around 100 mg of clindamycin, into the vagina once daily at bedtime for 3 or 7 consecutive nights.
Cleocin vaginal cream is safe for pregnant people to use in the second and third trimesters. A pregnant person requires 7 days of treatment.
Pregnant people should not use clindamycin vaginal suppositories. Researchers have yet to confirm the safety of suppositories during pregnancy.
To use a suppository, a person can insert one suppository pill which is equivalent to 100 mg of clindamycin into the vagina once daily at bedtime for 3 consecutive nights.
People with a history of colitis should not use clindamycin creams or suppositories.
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Antibiotics For Pilonidal Sinus
Pilonidal sinus is a condition in which a small hole or tunnel develops in the natal cleft .
Pilonidal sinus can develop due to a number of reasons. The major causes of pilonidal sinus include hormone changes, excess and coarse hair, infections, injuries and friction due to tight clothing. There are also certain factors that can increase the risk of developing pilonidal sinus. Obesity, sedentary lifestyle, deep and hairy natal clefts and a family history of the condition are some of the risk factors for pilonidal sinus.
Males are more prone to developing pilonidal sinus than females. This is probably because men tend to hairier than women.
In the initial stages of pilonidal sinus, a small depression or dimple can be seen between the buttocks. Over time, pus and fluid start accumulating in this depression and a cyst may be formed. Usually, this cyst contains dirt, hair, and debris. These cysts are also prone to infections.
Once the pilonidal cyst gets infected, it can cause a lot of troubles. A discharge of pus and blood may be seen from the cyst. Also, you may experience severe pain. You wont be able to sit for long periods of time. You may also face discomfort while wearing tight-fitted clothes.
If you are suffering from pilonidal sinus and are going through the aforementioned troubles, you must know that pilonidal sinus is completely curable. Pilonidal sinus can be treated even in severe cases.
Can Antibiotics Treat Pilonidal Sinus
There are a number of non-surgical as well as surgical treatments available for pilonidal sinus. The mild conditions can be treated effectively with non-surgical treatments. However, in serious cases, surgery may be required. So if you want to get rid of pilonidal sinus, consult a specialist doctor. Your doctor will assess the severity of pilonidal sinus in your case and will then suggest the best-suited treatment option for you.
If the pilonidal sinus in your case is mild, your doctor may also prescribe certain medications that can help in providing symptomatic relief from pilonidal sinus. These medicines usually consist of broad-spectrum antibiotics.
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Vaporizer Vs Humidifier: Whats The Difference
Every so often, you will develop illnesses or those close to you will become ill. And often as happens to millions of people that illness will be become of trouble with your sinuses.Sinuses are small cavities within your skull that are covered on the inside by mucosa. Typically, they lie empty, but Read more
What Are The Side Effects Of Clindamycin
Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction or a severe skin reaction .
Seek medical treatment if you have a serious drug reaction that can affect many parts of your body. Symptoms may include: skin rash, fever, swollen glands, flu-like symptoms, muscle aches, severe weakness, unusual bruising, or yellowing of your skin or eyes.
- any change in bowel habits
- severe stomach pain, diarrhea that is watery or bloody
- little or no urination or
- a metallic taste in your mouth .
Common side effects may include:
- nausea, vomiting, stomach pain
- mild skin rash or
- vaginal itching or discharge
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
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How Long Do Antibiotics Take To Work On Sinus Infections
Often, sinus infections are treated with antibiotics. However, your doctor will determine the best treatment based on the root cause of your sinus infection. If antibiotics are prescribed, you may want to know how long it will be before you start to experience relief from symptoms.
Read on to find out how sinus infections are diagnosed, when your doctor may prescribe antibiotics, and how long it will take antibiotics to take effect.
Are Some Dogs More Susceptible To Inner Ear Infection
Dogs with long, heavy ears seem to be predisposed to chronic ear infections that can ultimately lead to otitis interna. Spaniel breeds, such as the Cocker Spaniel, and hound breeds, such as the Bloodhound and Basset Hound, are the most commonly affected breeds. Regardless of breed, any dog with a chronic ear infection that is difficult to control may develop otitis interna if the eardrum is damaged, as a damaged ear drum allows bacteria to migrate down into the inner ear.
Dogs with long, heavy ears seem to be predisposed to chronic ear infections that ultimately lead to otitis interna.
Excessively vigorous cleaning of an infected external ear canal can sometimes cause otitis interna. Some ear cleansers are irritating to the middle and inner ear and can cause signs of otitis interna if the eardrum is damaged and allows some of the solution to penetrate too deeply.
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Can You Buy Antibiotics To Treat A Sinus Infection Over The Counter
Antibiotics require a prescription. You cannot buy them over the counter and most have specific directions for taking them and some side effects. It is a federal law that all antibiotics require a doctors prescription.
While in the past sinus infections were often treated with antibiotics, we now know that most of these infections are caused by viruses, not bacteria. Antibiotics are generally needed for only severe, prolonged infections greater than 10-14 days in duration or if you have a high fever.
What Are The Sinuses How Many Do We Have
A sinus is a hollow, air-filled cavity. For the purposes of this article, a sinus will refer to those hollow cavities that are in the skull and connected to the nasal airway by a narrow hole in the bone . Normally all sinuses are open to the nasal airway through an ostium. Humans have four pairs of these cavities each referred to as the
The four pairs of sinuses are often described as a unit and termed the “paranasal sinuses.” The cells of the inner lining of each sinus are mucus-secreting cells, epithelial cells, and some cells that are part of the immune system .
Functions of the sinuses include humidifying and warming inspired air, insulation of surrounding structures , increasing voice resonance, and as buffers against facial trauma. The sinuses decrease the weight of the skull. If the inflammation hinders the clearance of mucous or blocks the natural ostium, the inflammation may progress into a bacterial infection.
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What Decongestants And Nasal Sprays Soothe Or Cure Sinus Infections Or Sinusitis
Taking decongestants and mucolytics orally may be helpful in assisting drainage of sinus infection.
The treatment of chronic forms of sinus infection requires longer courses of medications, such as Augmentin, and may require a sinus drainage procedure. This drainage typically requires a surgical operation to open the blocked sinus under general anesthesia. In general, antihistamines should be avoided unless it is felt that the sinusitis sinus infection is due to allergies, such as from pollens, dander, or other environmental causes.
It is likely that the use of a topical nasal steroid spray will help reduce swelling in the allergic individual without the drying that is caused by using antihistamines although both are occasionally used. Oral steroids may be prescribed to reduce acute inflammation and to help with chronic inflammation in cases with or without polyps and in allergic fungal sinusitis.
In many people, allergic sinusitis develops first, and later, bacterial infection occurs. For these individuals, early treatment of allergic sinusitis may prevent the development of secondary bacterial sinusitis.
In rare instances or in natural disasters, fungal infections may develop in debilitated people. Death rates of 50%-85% have been reported for patients with these sinus infections. Treatment relies on early diagnosis followed by immediate surgical debridement, antifungal drugs, , and stabilizing any underlying health problem such as diabetes.
When Antibiotics Dont Work
Some patients suffer from recurring sinus infections. If your sinus infection does not improve within five to seven days after you finish the whole course of antibiotics, or if you experience another sinus infection within a few weeks, you may be referred to an Ear, Nose and Throat specialist for treatment.
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Clindamycin May Cause Side Effects Tell Your Doctor If Any Of These Symptoms Are Severe Or Do Not Go Away:
- unpleasant or metallic taste in the mouth
- joint pain
- swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, eyes, hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs
- yellowing of the skin or eyes
Clindamycin may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.
If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration’s MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online or by phone .
Clindamycin Vs Azithromycin: Warnings
Azithromycin should not be used to treat pneumonia in patients who have any of the following medical conditions:
- Cystic fibrosis
- Nosocomial infections
- Known or suspected bacteremia
Additionally, azithromycin should not be used to treat patients who have compromised immune systems, are elderly or disabled, are hospitalized, or who have no spleen .
Clindamycin has the potential to cause a severe allergic reaction in some people. Symptoms of a severe allergic reaction include hives or other serious skin reactions, difficulty breathing, and swelling of the lips, tongue, face, or throat. People who have had a previous allergic reaction to clindamycin should not use the medication, as another allergic reaction could be fatal.
People with any of the following medical conditions should speak to their doctor about their medical history and seek medical advice prior to using clindamycin:
- Gastrointestinal disease or inflammation
- Age over 65
How Is Otitis Interna Treated
Otitis interna is a very serious condition. If your dog is unable to eat or drink normally due to nausea or disorientation, then hospitalization for intravenous fluid therapy is generally warranted. Nausea must be controlled and dehydration avoided. It may also be necessary to sedate or anesthetize your dog in order to adequately see the ear tissues, take samples for bacterial culture, and appropriately clean the ear.
Treatment of the underlying infection is very important, and your veterinarian will prescribe the appropriate medications. Medications will be administered directly in the ear and orally. Antibiotics will be used for a bacterial infection for 6-8 weeks minimum. If the infection is fungal in nature, an anti-fungal medication will be prescribed. Whatever medications are chosen, it is critical that they be given precisely as prescribed.
If your dog has an altered balance, restrict his activity during treatment to prevent falling injuries.
If your dog has an altered balance, restrict his activity during treatment to prevent falling injuries. These dogs should not have access to stairs as they may take a tumble. You may also need to hand feed your dog temporarily reaching down into a dish may stimulate nausea.
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How To Use Lotions Gels And Solutions
A person with acne can apply a thin layer of Cleocin T 1% lotion or clindamycin 1% solution to the affected area of skin twice per day.
A person can apply Clindagel 1% once daily to the affected area when acne appears.
Topical clindamycin can cause diarrhea. Anyone who has had colitis should avoid using this treatment.
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Lets Get An Insight Into The Various Antibiotics That Are Prescribed For Pilonidal Sinus:
- Metronidazole: Metronidazole is a medicine that has been used as an antibiotic for decades. It effectively stops the growth of bacteria and protozoa in the cyst. Metronidazole is available in capsule form, tablet form as well as topical form.The dosage of Metronidazole depends upon the severity of the pilonidal cyst or sinus. If you are taking the medicine orally, you should take it with food or with a full glass of water or milk to avoid stomach upset. Metronidazole is effective against a variety of infections and thus will bring significant relief from the condition of pilonidal sinus.
- Erythromycin: It is the most common antiobiotic that doctors prescribe for treating pilonidal sinus. It is also popular for treating of a variety of infections. It slows down the growth of bacteria. Erythromycin can also kill sensitive bacteria as it reduces the production of proteins that the bacteria need to survive. Erythromycin is available in oral, topical as well as intravenous forms.The dosage will depend upon you condition and your response to the medicine. Erythromycin works best when it is taken empty stomach. Try to take the medicine before meals. In case nausea occurs, you can take it with food or milk.
Along with these antibiotics, your doctor may also prescribe certain anti-inflammatory drugs that will help in relieving the pain and subsiding the swelling of the cyst. These include medicines like acetaminophen and ibuprofen.