What Are Complications Of Sinus Infection Or Sinusitis
While serious complications do not occur frequently, it is possible for a sinus infection to cause a direct extension of infection into the brain through a sinus wall, creating a life-threatening emergency .
In addition, other adjacent structures can become infected and develop problems, such as osteomyelitis of bones in the skull and infection around the eye . Rarely, these infections may cause death. The most susceptible individuals to complications are patients with suppressed immune systems, diabetes, and relatively rarely from multiple trauma injuries that may occur in natural disasters.
What Are The Treatment Options
Sinusitis is treated differently based on the cause. Most cases of acute sinusitis, about 98 percent, are caused by a virus, not bacteria, and should not be treated with antibiotics. Acute viral sinusitis may be treated using pain relievers such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, steroid nasal sprays, or salt water irrigation in the nose. These treatments are also good options for acute bacterial sinusitis. Most people get better naturally from acute bacterial sinusitis, called watchful waiting, but some patients with acute bacterial sinusitis may get better faster with an antibiotic.
Chronic sinusitis is treated differently than acute sinusitis. Because chronic sinusitis is caused more by inflammation than infection, the treatments for chronic sinusitis aim to control the inflammation. Salt water nasal irrigation and/or nasal steroid sprays are the main treatments for the symptoms of chronic sinusitis. Antibiotics may sometimes be helpful but not always.
Other factors, including allergies, nasal polyps, asthma, and problems with the bodys ability to fight infections, can go along with sinusitis and make it worse unless they are also treated.
X-rays or CT scans of the sinuses are not necessary to diagnose uncomplicated sinusitis if you have the symptoms of sinusitis . If your doctor suspects a complication or if you have repeated episodes or prolonged sinus symptoms, a CT scan of your sinuses may be needed.
What Causes Sinus Infections
Sinusitis is typically triggered by a virus, bacteria, fungus clogging the sinuses and sudden pressure changes. Sinus infections arent contagious. However, viruses like the cold or flu are contagious and often cause sinus infections.
Other common causes of sinusitis include:
- blocked airways, often from asthma or allergies
- seasonal or mold allergies
- dry air, often caused by winter weather
- a deviated septum.
Prevent getting or spreading viral infections such as the cold that cause sinusitis by washing your hands after touching high contact surfaces and covering your mouth if you cough or sneeze.
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What Decongestants And Nasal Sprays Soothe Or Cure Sinus Infections Or Sinusitis
Taking decongestants and mucolytics orally may be helpful in assisting drainage of sinus infection.
The treatment of chronic forms of sinus infection requires longer courses of medications, such as Augmentin, and may require a sinus drainage procedure. This drainage typically requires a surgical operation to open the blocked sinus under general anesthesia. In general, antihistamines should be avoided unless it is felt that the sinusitis sinus infection is due to allergies, such as from pollens, dander, or other environmental causes.
It is likely that the use of a topical nasal steroid spray will help reduce swelling in the allergic individual without the drying that is caused by using antihistamines although both are occasionally used. Oral steroids may be prescribed to reduce acute inflammation and to help with chronic inflammation in cases with or without polyps and in allergic fungal sinusitis.
In many people, allergic sinusitis develops first, and later, bacterial infection occurs. For these individuals, early treatment of allergic sinusitis may prevent the development of secondary bacterial sinusitis.
In rare instances or in natural disasters, fungal infections may develop in debilitated people. Death rates of 50%-85% have been reported for patients with these sinus infections. Treatment relies on early diagnosis followed by immediate surgical debridement, antifungal drugs, , and stabilizing any underlying health problem such as diabetes.
How Sinus Is Treated
As stated, most of the treatments for sinus allergies are OTC . These can be had in a tablet form or a spray form. The nasal sprays are the first line of defence in the treatment. These can be very beneficial in reducing the swelling in the nasal cavities. They are also the doctors choice as they can be used almost by anyone and can be used for milder to medium cases.
OTC medicines are the other source that can be tried for nasal allergies. Most of these medications concentrate on the cold rather than the allergy itself. These are once again used if the symptoms are mild. You can try them for a few days, and if the problems persist, it would be best to consult your physician.
An oral decongestant is another method that can bring you relief. However, make a note that you should not use them for more than three days at a time. It would be safe to consult your doctor before taking a decongestant.
Antihistamines- these medications work directly against the allergy symptoms are widely prescribed by the doctors. They help a lot in removing the cold symptoms like itching and coughing. If all the other medications do not work and if you are getting the reactions frequently, then your doctor might suggest going for sinus surgery to remove the blockages.
How You Can Treat Sinusitis Yourself
You can often treat mild sinusitis without seeing a GP by:
- getting plenty of rest
- taking painkillers, such as paracetamol or ibuprofen
- avoiding allergic triggers and not smoking
- cleaning your nose with a salt water solution to ease congestion
You do not need to use all of the solution, but make a fresh solution each time you clean your nose.
Which Medications Open The Sinuses Will Antibiotics Cure Sinus Infections
Medications that Cure Sinus Infections
The goal in treating sinus infections is to eliminate bacteria from the sinus cavities with antibiotics. This helps prevent complications, relieve symptoms, and reduce the risk of chronic sinusitis.
- In acute, uncomplicated sinus infections, a synthetic penicillin, for example, amoxicillin , which is prescribed to most people to cure acute sinus infections. Amoxicilin is effective against the ususal causes of sinus infections, and is inexpensive. The most common side effects of amoxicillin include allergic reactions and an upset stomach.
- People allergic to penicillin can take a sulfur-containing antibiotic called trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or TMP/SMX . Sulfa drugs are not recommended for people who are allergic to sulfur.
- People who have several episodes, or partially treated acute sinusitis or those who have chronic sinusitis may become resistant to amoxicillin and TMP/SMX. Synthetic penicillins and cephalosporins such as amoxicillin/clavulanate , cefuroxime , and loracarbef can cure most sinus infections.
- Eventually, overuse of these “broad-spectrum” antibiotics may lead to organisms evolving that can resist even the most potent antibiotics available. Simpler antibiotics, for example, amoxicillin, should be used first and taken for the entire duration .
Medications to Keep the Sinuses Open
OTC Steroid Nasal Sprays
Steroids are potent inhibitors of inflammation.
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How Is A Sinus Infection Diagnosed
To diagnose a sinus infection, your doctor will ask about your symptoms and do a physical exam. They may check for pressure and tenderness by pressing a finger against your head and cheeks. They may also examine the inside of your nose to look for signs of inflammation.
In most cases, your doctor can diagnose a sinus infection based on your symptoms and the results of a physical exam.
However, in the case of a chronic infection, your doctor may recommend imaging tests to examine your nasal passages and sinuses. These tests can reveal mucus blockages and any abnormal structures, such as polyps.
Your doctor may also use a fiberoptic scope, which is a lighted tube that passes through your nose. Its used for directly visualizing the inside of your nasal passageways and sinuses. A sample may be obtained during nasal endoscopy for culture testing to test for the presence an infection.
An allergy test identifies irritants that may cause an allergic reaction. A blood test can check for diseases that weaken the immune system, such as HIV.
How Long Do Sinus Infections Or Sinusitis Last
Sinusitis or sinus infections usually clear up if treated early and appropriately. Aside from those who develop complications, the outlook for acute sinusitis is good. People may develop chronic sinusitis or have recurrent attacks of acute sinusitis if they have allergic or structural causes for their sinusitis.
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Other Remedies For Symptom Relief
Staying hydrated can help thin mucus to ease congestion.
Drinking hot liquids such as tea and broth may help relieve your symptoms. Breathing in moist air may also help relieve the discomfort that comes with nasal congestion. Try breathing in steam from the shower, a bowl of hot water, or a mug of tea.
If your voice is hoarse, rest it by avoiding yelling, whispering, and singing.
Placing a warm compress over the inflamed area can help reduce pressure and provide relief.
damages the natural protective elements of your nose, mouth, throat, and respiratory system.
If you smoke, consider quitting. Ask a doctor if you need help or are interested in quitting. Quitting may help prevent future episodes of both acute and chronic sinusitis.
Wash your hands frequently, especially during cold and flu seasons, to keep your sinuses from becoming irritated or infected by viruses or bacteria on your hands.
Using a humidifier during the cooler, dryer months may also help prevent sinus infections.
Talk with a doctor to see if allergies are causing your sinusitis. If youre allergic to something that causes persistent sinus symptoms, you will likely need to treat your allergies to relieve your sinus infection.
You may need to seek an allergy specialist to determine the cause of the allergy. The specialist may suggest:
- avoiding the allergen
- doing allergic immunotherapy
Keeping your allergies under control can help prevent repeated episodes of sinusitis.
What Are The Causes Of Sinus Infection
Conditions that can cause sinus blockage include:
- Severe cold
- Allergic rhinitis
- Nasal polyps
- A deviated septum, which is a shift in the nasal cavity
- Respiratory tract infections which can be viral, bacterial, or fungal
- Allergies such as hay fever
- Other medical conditions such as HIV/AIDS or cystic fibrosis
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Symptoms And Signs Of Sinusitis
Acute and chronic sinusitis cause similar symptoms and signs, including purulent rhinorrhea, pressure and pain in the face, nasal congestion and obstruction, hyposmia, halitosis, and productive cough . Often the pain is more severe in acute sinusitis. The area over the affected sinus may be tender, swollen, and erythematous.
Maxillary sinusitis causes pain in the maxillary area, toothache, and frontal headache.
Frontal sinusitis causes pain in the frontal area and frontal headache.
Ethmoid sinusitis causes pain behind and between the eyes, a frontal headache often described as splitting, periorbital cellulitis, and tearing.
Sphenoid sinusitis causes less well localized pain referred to the frontal or occipital area.
Malaise may be present. Fever and chills suggest an extension of the infection beyond the sinuses.
The nasal mucous membrane is red and turgescent yellow or green purulent rhinorrhea may be present. Seropurulent or mucopurulent exudate may be seen in the middle meatus with maxillary, anterior ethmoid, or frontal sinusitis and in the area medial to the middle turbinate with posterior ethmoid or sphenoid sinusitis.
Manifestations of complications include periorbital swelling and redness, proptosis, ophthalmoplegia, confusion or decreased level of consciousness, and severe headache.
Favorite Resources For Finding A Specialist
Through research, education, and advocacy, the American Rhinologic Society is devoted to serving patients with nose, sinus, and skull base disorders. Their website provides a valuable search tool to find a doctor, as well as links to other medical societies and resources that are useful for patients.
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When Is Surgery Necessary For Sinus Infections Or Sinusitis
Some people continue to have chronic sinusitis despite therapy with antibiotics and drugs for symptom relief. Those that have a CT scan indicative of a sinus infection, and any complications of sinusitis may benefit from sinus surgery.
- Usually, surgery for sinus infections is performed endoscopically using a fiberoptic nasopharyngoscope.
- The goal is to remove obstructive mucosal tissue, open the sinus-nasal passageway, and allow the sinuses to drain.
- During the surgery, nasal polyps can be removed, and a crooked nasal septum can be straightened, leading to improved breathing.
- Long-term nasal steroids and periodic antibiotics still may be necessary.
If you continue to have sinus infections, your doctor will order tests or procedures to find out why. A culture can be taken at the office or during the endoscopic surgery, which may reveal anaerobes, a type of bacteria. Treatment for this type of bacterial or fungal sinus infection are treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics.
How Much Does It Cost For Sinus Treatment In India
In India, the treatments are mostly are of over the counter varieties and can include nasal decongestants, antibiotics, and medications. If you are undergoing the nasal surgery, then the cost depends on the type of clinic you are undergoing. Mostly they can start from INR 35,000 and can go up depending on the post-treatment procedures and medications.
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How Long Does Sinusitis Last
Defending upon the severity and the type Sinusitis can have different recovery periods:
- Acute Sinusitis: Commonly seen during cold weather, it can get recovered between ten to 20 days post-infection.
- Subacute Sinusitis: Also described as intermedia Sinusitis, it can last up to 1-3 months.
- Chronic Sinusitis: Even though the condition is not common amongst its patients, it is not that rare in its occurrence. The lowest duration of chronic Sinusitis can be 3 months which can last for years. It is often followed by frequent acute Sinusitis attacks.
How Can I Tell If I Have A Sinus Infection Cold Or Nasal Allergy
It can be difficult to tell the difference between a cold, allergies, and a sinus infection. The common cold typically builds, peaks, and slowly disappears. It lasts a few days to a week. A cold can transform into a sinus infection. Nasal allergy is inflammation of the nose due to irritating particles . Symptoms of a nasal allergy can include sneezing, itchy nose and eyes, congestion, runny nose, and post nasal drip . Sinusitis and allergy symptoms can happen at the same time as a common cold.
If you are fighting off a cold and develop symptoms of a sinus infection or nasal allergy, see your healthcare provider. You will be asked to describe your symptoms and medical history.
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How Do I Know If My Sinus Infection Is Bacterial Or Viral
Both viral and bacterial Sinus infection infects the nasal cavities and lining of your facial muscles.
In case of occurrence, viral Sinus is common and when escalated causes the more severe and prolonged version of Sinusitis which is the bacterial one. They both are caused by upper respiratory infection, which initiates its infection through the nasal cavity to various facial muscles and respiratory systems.
Common Colds And Sinus Infections
A viral infection associated with the common cold is the most common cause of sinus infections .
This virus may jump to other people, causing a cold that may also develop into viral sinusitis.
In only 0.5 to 2 percent of cases do people develop bacterial sinusitis , which is typically a complication of viral sinusitis. Bacterial sinusitis is not contagious.
In rare cases, fungi can cause a sinus infection, particularly if a person has a fungal allergy. But fungal sinusitis generally does not affect people with healthy immune systems.
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Common Cold Vs Sinus Infections
Everyone is familiar with the common symptoms that happen when you have a head cold: runny nose, sneezing, fatigue, congestion, postnasal drip, sore throat, and more.
Usually, these viral infections clear up in about a week, and you start feeling good again.
But these symptoms are also similar to the early stages of a sinus infection. So if you notice that the symptoms arent going away in 7 10 days, or the symptoms are coming back frequently, then its time to talk to an ENT about sinus infections.
What Causes Fungal Sinusitis
There are four types of fungal sinusitis:
Saprophytic FungusThis happens when fungus or mold grows on top of mucus or mucous crusts inside the nose. In this case, the fungus is not really infecting the nasal tissue, its just living off the mucus in the nose. This may not cause any additional symptoms that were not already present, and treatment is simple removal of the crusts with nasal washes or other methods.
Fungus BallThis is caused by fungus getting caught in one of the sinuses, forming clumps of material that often contain bacteria as well. This is most often in the maxillary, or cheek, sinus, and usually occurs in patients whose immune system is working fine. Often there are no symptoms, other than slight discomfort until the fungus ball grows large enough to block off the sinus. This form of fungal sinusitis requires simple surgery to open and wash out the sinus. Anti-fungal therapy is generally not prescribed.
Invasive Fungal SinusitisThis is a severe infection of the nasal and sinus lining that can lead to the destruction of nasal/sinus tissue. There are three different forms of invasive fungal sinusitis:
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