Is Your Sinus Infection Caused By A Virus Or Bacteria
Physicians may not know if sinusitis is bacterial or viral, because the diagnosis is typically done by observing symptoms. Symptoms include:
- Nasal congestion
- Thick nasal or post-nasal drainage
Sometimes other tests such as computed tomography scan or cultures are used to help make the diagnosis.
Despite the recommendations that antibiotic use be judicious, they are still overused for sinusitis, according to many physicians who specialize in treating sinus problems.
Some physicians say they give patients with sinusitis a prescription for antibiotics, and recommend they wait three to five days before filling it, and only fill it if symptoms are not better by then. A can be used to help relieve your symptoms and promote drainage.
The longer symptoms last, the more likely a sinus problem is to be a bacterial infection, some experts say.
Doxycycline Monohydrate Vs Hyclate
Doxycycline monohydrate and hyclate both contain the active ingredient doxycycline, meaning theyll both kill bacteria and treat bacteria-related conditions such as acne .
As antibiotics, doxycycline monohydrate and doxycycline hyclate are equally effective. Both are tetracycline antibiotics, both work in the same way to stop bacterial growth and both are highly effective for a range of conditions.
The key differences between doxycycline monohydrate and doxycycline hyclate is their structure and water solubility. But these differences do not have an effect on how well either works once absorbed in the body.
A 1984 study with 12 volunteers taking the oral forms of both medications found that there was no difference in absorption and bioavailability between the two preparations.
Monohydrate and hyclate are simply two different salt forms of doxycycline, with each salt form possessing slightly different absorption properties. Both are sold in tablet and capsule form.
Historically, theres been a significant difference in price between doxycycline monohydrate and doxycycline hyclate, with the monohydrate form of doxycycline more affordable at this time than the hyclate form of this medication.
However, this can vary based on the drugs manufacturer.
How Quickly Will Doxycycline Work
Like other acne treatments, doxycycline needs some time to start working. Your acne might start improving within 2 weeks, but it can take up to 12 weeks to see the full benefit of the treatment. You’ll know doxycycline is working for you when you see less acne forming and your skin starts to look clearer.
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Fda Okays Single Dose Antibiotic For Pneumonia And Sinusitis
NEW YORK, June 14-The FDA has approved Zmax as a single-dose treatment for adults with pneumonia and certain types of acute bacterial sinusitis and pneumonia, Pfizer announced yesterday.
Having a once-only liquid antibiotic treatment could help improve compliance among older patients, said Pfizer. A single two-gram dose proved more potent than a standard dose of immediate-release Zithromax, with three times more Zmax found in tissue during the first 24 hours, said the New York drug firm.
Results showed that one dose of Zmax was as effective as currently available treatments that must be taken for seven to 10 days, said Joseph Feczko, M.D., a vice president and chief medical officer for Pfizer.
Zmax is released into the small intestine instead of the stomach, said Pfizer, providing a surge in drug levels during the onset of a bacterial infection when the bacterial count is highest.
The drug is designed to treat acute bacterial sinusitis caused by Haemophilu influenzae, Morxella catarrhalis, or Streptococcus pneumoniae, and also community-acquired pneumonia caused by Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Clinical trials showed diarrhea and loose stools to be the most common complaint associated with Zmax, followed by nausea and abdominal pain. Pfizer said diarrhea cleared up within two days among the Zmax-treated patients.
Results Of Clinical Trials
There have been no randomized controlled trials of antibiotic treatment for ABRS using sinus aspirate cultures before and after treatment, although nonrandomized trials have demonstrated bacteriologic cures. Five RCTs and two meta-analyses have compared antibiotics, usually amoxicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole , with placebo, with clinical improvement as the outcome, which is the more clinically relevant patient-oriented outcome.4,5 About 47 percent of patients treated with antibiotics and 32 percent of the control group were cured at 10 to 14 days. Eighty-one percent of patients treated with antibiotics and 66 percent of the control group were cured or improved, meaning one patient benefited for every seven treated with antibiotics. The treatment effect in these trials may have been underestimated because the lack of specificity of diagnosis diluted the effect of treatment.
Amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium , cephalosporins , and macrolides , have been studied extensively.6,7 All have demonstrated similar clinical success ratesgenerally above 85 percent. The use of fluoroquinolones for ABRS is relatively new. Ciprofloxacin and cefuroxime had 90 percent resolution rates when administered to patients in a primary care setting.8 In an open-label RCT, levofloxacin and clarithromycin had 96 and 93 percent clinical success rates, respectively.9
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About Dr Chris Vanderhoof Dvm Mph
Dr. Chris Vanderhoof is a 2013 graduate of the Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine at Virginia Tech, where he also earned a Masters in Public Health. He completed a rotating internship with Red Bank Veterinary Hospital in New Jersey and now works as a general practitioner in the Washington D.C. area.Dr. Vanderhoof is also a copywriter specializing in the animal health field and founder of Paramount Animal Health Writing Solutions, which can be found at www.animalhealthcopywriter.com. Dr. Vanderhoof lives in the Northern Virginia area with his family, including 3 cats.
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Lets Start With The Basics The Difference Between Colds And Sinus Infections
In general, cold symptoms can include:
- Coughing and sneezing
Sinus infections often have similar symptoms, but they usually last longer a week or more, whereas colds often clear up within about a week. Typical sinusitis symptoms include:
Disadvantages Of Doxycycline For Sinus Infections
A major disadvantage with doxycycline use for sinus infection is its side-effect profile. The side-effects however are not very common and at the most to mild. Some patients may experience nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting and loss of appetite. Rarely do patients get headaches and alterations in their vision following doxycycline use but if they do occur, patients are strongly recommended to visit their health care practitioner with a view to stopping the treatment and taking a suitable alternative for the sinus infection.
Doxycycline for sinus infections in pregnant women is a contraindication meaning that it should not be prescribed for pregnant women.
Doxycycline is a useful antibiotic in the treatment of sinus infections.
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What Are The Benefits
Corticosteroids work to reduce inflammation and swelling in your sinuses. This makes it easier for nasal mucus to drain into your stomach like it usually does. It also reduces pressure in your sinuses, which helps to minimize pain associated with sinus infections.
Steroid injections administer steroids directly into inflamed tissue. This method is much more direct than using a nasal spray or taking an oral steroid.
However, frequent steroid injections can lead to health problems, so theyre usually only used for severe or long-lasting sinus infections.
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Can You Overdose On Doxycycline
There are no published reports of toxic effects in humans who overdose with single large doses of doxycycline. There is one case with chronic overdose causing severe, reversible toxicity. It is curious that calves who are accidentally given three to ten times the therapeutic dose often develop a serious or fatal heart condition. To date, this has not been reported in humans.
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Usual Adult Dose For Legionella Pneumonia
Community-acquired pneumonia:Oral:-Immediate-release: 500 mg orally as a single dose on day 1, followed by 250 mg orally once a day on days 2 to 5-Extended-release: 2 g orally once as a single doseParenteral: 500 mg IV once a day as a single dose for at least 2 days, followed by 500 mg orally to complete a 7- to 10-day course of therapyComment: Extended-release formulations should be taken on an empty stomach.Uses:-Treatment of mild community acquired pneumonia due to Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Streptococcus pneumoniae in patients appropriate for oral therapy-Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia due to C pneumoniae, H influenzae, Legionella pneumophila, Moraxella catarrhalis, M pneumoniae, or S pneumoniae in patients who require initial IV therapy
Drugs That You Should Not Use With Doxycycline
Do not use these drugs with doxycycline. Doing so can cause dangerous effects in your body. Examples of these drugs include:
- Penicillin. Doxycycline may interfere with how penicillin kills bacteria.
- Isotretinoin. Taking isotretinoin and doxycycline together can increase your risk of intracranial hypertension.
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Doxycycline May Interact With Other Medications
Doxycycline oral tablet can interact with other medications, vitamins, or herbs you may be taking. An interaction is when a substance changes the way a drug works. This can be harmful or prevent the drug from working well.
To help avoid interactions, your doctor should manage all of your medications carefully. Be sure to tell your doctor about all medications, vitamins, or herbs youre taking. To find out how this drug might interact with something else youre taking, talk to your doctor or pharmacist.
Examples of drugs that can cause interactions with doxycycline are listed below.
What Are Steroid Nasal Sprays
A steroid nasal spray is a solution containing a medicine called a corticosteroid or steroid. The solution comes in a small bottle with an elongated nozzle that is sprayed into the nostrils. Steroid nasal sprays are considered very safe to use and deemed effective at treating the symptoms of sinus problems.
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Dosage For Malaria Prevention
Generic immediate-release, Doryx, and Acticlate:
- Typical dosage: 100 mg daily. Begin therapy 1 to 2 days before travel to the area with malaria. Continue daily treatment for 4 weeks after leaving the area.
- Typical dosage: 120 mg daily. Begin therapy 1 to 2 days before travel to the area with malaria. Continue daily treatment for 4 weeks after leaving the area.
Generic immediate-release, Doryx, and Acticlate:
- Typical dosage: 2 mg/kg once daily, up to the adult dose. Begin therapy 1 to 2 days before travel to the area with malaria. Continue daily treatment for 4 weeks after leaving the area.
- Typical dosage: 2.4 mg/kg once daily, up to the adult dose. Begin therapy 1 to 2 days before travel to the area with malaria. Continue daily treatment for 4 weeks after leaving the area.
It has not been confirmed that this drug is safe and effective for use in children younger than 8 years.
Your doctor may start you on a lowered dosage or a different schedule. This can help keep levels of this drug from building up too much in your body.
How To Solve A Sinus Infection That Wont Go Away
Sinus infection is a common problem that can affect any age group. It represents the fifth most common condition that requires an antibiotic prescription.
Sinuses are four paired air-filled spaces in your skull and face bones surrounding your nose. Their main function is to produce mucus that forms a layer inside the sinuses to humidify inhaled air and keep the interior of your nose moisturized. This mucus layer can trap dust particles, other pollutants, or bad germs and brush them out through your nose. Each sinus drains into your nose through small openings to keep these passages clear of excess mucus and the trapped particles.
However, sometimes, such as when the weather changes and you catch a cold, it can turn into a sinus infection. This causes inflammation of your sinuses, known as sinusitis. Usually, sinusitis should go away in a few days or a week. But sometimes that sinus infection can stick around for a long time.
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What Are Risk Factors For Acute Sinusitis
Some people are more likely than others to get acute sinusitis. These include:
- People who have allergies.
- People who have structural problems with their noses or polyps, which are growths that can hang inside noses or sinus cavities.
- People who spend a great deal of time in places where infections happen, like preschools or day cares.
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Side Effects And Reactions
The most commonly reported side effect is inflammation of the oesophagus , causing heartburn. This can be quite unpleasant but is somewhat preventable by taking the medication with plenty of water, while standing and well before going to bed.
Doxycycline should not be used in children or in pregnant women where it can result in permanent brown staining of teeth and have other effects on foetal bone development.
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Precautions While Using Minocycline
It is very important that your doctor check the progress of you or your child at regular visits. This will allow your doctor to see if the medicine is working properly and to decide if you should continue to take it. Blood and urine tests may be needed to check for unwanted effects.
If your or your childâs symptoms do not improve or if they become worse after 12 weeks of treatment, check with your doctor.
Using minocycline while you are pregnant can harm your unborn baby. The medicine may also cause birth defects if the father is using it when his sexual partner becomes pregnant. If a pregnancy occurs while you are using minocycline, tell your doctor right away.
Birth control pills may not work as well while you are using minocycline. To keep from getting pregnant, use an additional form of birth control with your pills. Other forms include condoms, a diaphragm, or contraceptive foam or jelly.
Minocycline may darken the color of your skin, nails, eyes, teeth, gums, or scars. Talk with your doctor if you or your child have any concerns.
Minocycline may cause diarrhea, and in some cases it can be severe. It may occur 2 months or more after you stop taking minocycline. Do not take any medicine to treat diarrhea without first checking with your doctor. Diarrhea medicines may make the diarrhea worse or make it last longer. If you or your child have any questions about this or if mild diarrhea continues or gets worse, check with your doctor.
How To Take Doxycycline
Use Doxycycline exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. Do not use in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.
Follow all directions on your prescription label and read all medication guides or instruction sheets. Use the medicine exactly as directed.
Take doxycycline with a full glass of water. Drink plenty of liquids while you are taking doxycycline.
Read and carefully follow any Instructions for Use provided with your medicine. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you do not understand these instructions.
Most brands of doxycyline may be taken with food or milk if the medicine upsets your stomach.
Different brands of doxycycline may have different instructions about taking them with or without food.
Take Oracea on an empty stomach, at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal.
You may need to split a doxycycline tablet to get the correct dose. Follow your doctor’s instructions.
Swallow a delayed-release capsule or tablet whole. Do not crush, chew, break, or open it.
Measure liquid medicine with the dosing syringe provided, or with a special dose-measuring spoon or medicine cup. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one.
If you take doxycycline to prevent malaria: Start taking the medicine 1 or 2 days before entering an area where malaria is common. Continue taking the medicine every day during your stay and for at least 4 weeks after you leave the area.
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When Antibiotics Dont Work
Some patients suffer from recurring sinus infections. If your sinus infection does not improve within five to seven days after you finish the whole course of antibiotics, or if you experience another sinus infection within a few weeks, you may be referred to an Ear, Nose and Throat specialist for treatment.