Monday, July 15, 2024

Children’s Medicine For Sinus Infection

Symptoms Of A Sinus Infection:

Taking Care of Your Children : Food Remedies for Sinus Infections in a Baby
  • Green or yellow nasal mucus
  • Cold symptoms last longer than 10 days
  • Headache and/or sinus pressure
  • Pain in the ears or teeth
  • Worsening congestion

In the first few days, you might not be able to tell if your child has a head cold or a sinus infection. But pay attention to whether the child is getting better or if things progress so you know when to contact an ENT.

Acute Sinus Infection Medications

If the remedies listed above don’t do the trick, you can also take various over-the-counter medications to help relieve your sinus infection symptoms.

These include:

Oral antihistamines such as Benadryl are not recommended for sinus infections because they may not improve symptoms and can cause side effects.

Causes For Sinusitis In Children

The causes for sinusitis range from microorganisms to genetic factors. Let us have a look at each in detail .

  • Genetics: Studies suggest that children who have a family history of sinusitis are at a higher risk of developing sinus infections. A recent study has revealed that children whose families had a history of sinusitis are 57.5 times more prone to develop sinus infections than others. First cousins have nine times the increased risk, and second cousins have 2.9 times the increased risk of pediatric chronic sinusitis.
  • Genetic diseases, such as primary immunodeficiencies and cystic fibrosis, might also cause sinus infections in kids.

  • Allergies: Allergies are known to be a contributing factor for chronic sinusitis. Allergies cause swelling of the nasal tissue and increase mucus production, leading to inflammation and swelling of the sinuses.
  • Infections: Bacterial and viral infections also cause sinusitis in children. An ostial obstruction causes mucus and fluids to seep into the sinuses, making them the perfect breeding grounds for bacteria and viruses and leading to sinusitis.
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    Sinus Infection In Kids: What Parents Should Know

    • Sinusitis means infection and inflammation of the sinus cavities. The infections can be viral or bacterial and often follow colds or attacks of allergies.
    • Nine out of every ten cases of sinusitis are caused by viruses and do NOT get better with antibiotics.
    • Yellow or green mucus coming from the nose does NOT mean theres a bacterial infection. This commonly occurs with viruses as well. Sinus pressure/headaches also do not mean there is a bacterial infection.

    Try Nasal Irrigation To Wash Out Sinus Passages

    Pin by Jackie Sellers on Health/food

    Nasal irrigation is the only remedy where there is evidence in children that it lessens the severity of a plugged nose, although the authors of the BMJ review note the studies were small.

    Irrigation is a method of using a sterilized saltwater solution to force out germs and plugged-up mucous residing in the sinus passages. Other terms for this are nasal wash or nasal douche.

    Adults sometimes get the water into the nose via a device called a neti pot, so this method is sometimes known by that name.

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    Pale Or Discolored Skin

    They say the rare complication in serious Covid cases means oxygen levels in the blood are low.

    The CDC called it an “emergency warning sign” and said people should seek help immediately if you notice the change in color, along with trouble breathing, persistent pain or pressure in the chest, inability to stay awake, or new confusion.

    How Will The Doctor Treat Sinusitis

    Acute sinusitis: Most children respond very well to antibiotic therapy. Nasal decongestants or topical nasal sprays may also be prescribed for short-term relief of stuffiness. Nasal saline drops or gentle spray can be helpful in thinning secretions and improving mucous membrane function.

    If your child has acute sinusitis, symptoms should improve within the first few days. Even if your child improves dramatically within the first week of treatment, it is important that you continue therapy until all the antibiotics have been taken. Your doctor may decide to treat your child with additional medicines if he/she has allergies or other conditions that make the sinus infection worse.

    Chronic sinusitis: If your child suffers from one or more symptoms of sinusitis for at least twelve weeks, he or she may have chronic sinusitis. Chronic sinusitis or recurrent episodes of acute sinusitis numbering more than four to six per year, are indications that you should seek consultation with an ear, nose, and throat specialist. The ENT may recommend medical or surgical treatment of the sinuses.

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    Treatment For Sinus Infection In Children

    Sinus infection in children is usually treated with antibiotics and decongestants. However, home remedies such as inhalation of steam and drinking hot liquids can equally contribute to eliminate sinus infections.

    Sinus infection in children is usually treated with antibiotics and decongestants. However, home remedies such as inhalation of steam and drinking hot liquids can equally contribute to eliminate sinus infections.

    Sinus infection is a condition in which the sinuses get inflamed. It is the result of bacterial growth in the sinuses. The invasion of bacteria causes excess mucus production, which eventually blocks the sinus and the nasal passages. Sinus infection in children is relatively uncommon as compared to adults. Common cold and exposure to allergen are some of the causes behind sinus infection. Children affected with sinusitis are likely to complain about headache, pain around eyes, and trouble breathing.

    Signs That Antibiotics Might Be Necessary For A Sinus Infection

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    Because of the concerns about antibiotic resistance, many primary care physicians and ENTs are selective about when they prescribe antibiotics.

    If the sinus infection is bacterial, then an antibiotic can be a great way to clear up the infection. But we avoid using these prescription medications for viral infections.

    Specific criteria need to be met before we consider using antibiotics for a sinus infection treatment:

  • Symptoms Are Not Improving: The child has had nasal congestion, facial pressure/pain, coughing, and a sinus headache for 10 days. These symptoms arent improving.
  • Symptoms Improved, Then Worsened: Sometimes, the head cold symptoms will start to go away after 5 or 6 days. However, if symptoms start up again and get worse, it could be due to a new infection in the sinuses.
  • Fever for Several Days: The presence of fever could be an indication of an underlying infection. Watch for a fever over 102 degrees Fahrenheit that lasts for several days in a row.
  • If antibiotics are recommended for children, the treatment typically lasts for 10 14 days. After that, your pediatrician or ENT will prescribe the ideal treatment plan to address your childs unique needs.

    The childs symptoms will begin to improve within a few days of starting the medication. As with any type of antibiotic treatment, its crucial to continue doses consistently until the prescription is finished even if the symptoms are gone.

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    Does My Child Need Surgery For Sinusitis

    For a small percentage of children with severe or persistent sinusitis symptoms despite medication, surgery may be considered. This is done by an ENT surgeon. They use an instrument called an endoscope to open the natural drainage pathways of your child’s sinuses and make the narrow passages wider. Opening up the sinuses and allowing air to circulate usually leads to fewer and less severe sinus infections. Adenoidectomy may also be considered at the time of surgery as this may also help reduce the symptoms of sinusitis.

    Sore Throat And Hoarse Voice

    Postnasal drip can leave you with a raw and aching throat. Although it may start as an annoying tickle, it can get worse.

    If your infection lasts for a few weeks or more, mucus can irritate and inflame your throat as it drips, resulting in a painful sore throat and hoarse voice. Frequent coughing and throat clearing can make a hoarse voice worse.

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    How Is Pediatric Sinusitis Treated

    Most of the time, children are diagnosed with viral sinusitis that will improve by just treating the symptoms. Treatment options include:

    • Saline sprays to thin secretion and improve mucus membrane functions.
    • Nasal decongestant sprays for a short period of time to relieve stuffiness.
    • Anti-inflammatory sprays can be used to decrease congestion.
    • Over-the-counter decongestants and antihistamines are not generally effective for viral upper respiratory infections in children, and the role of such medications for treatment of sinusitis is not recommended. Such medications should not be given to children younger than two years old.

    If your child has persistent symptoms for greater than 7-10 days, then antibiotics may be warranted. Even if your child improves dramatically within the first week of treatment, it is important that you complete the antibiotic therapy.

    You can reduce the risk of sinus infections for your child by reducing exposure to known environmental allergies and pollutants such as tobacco smoke, reducing his/her time at day care, and treating stomach acid reflux disease.

    Increase Intake Of Hot Beverages

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    Blocked sinuses are mainly responsible for nasal congestion. The clogged sinuses resulting from built up of mucus cause breathing problems. Drinking hot beverages like tea and soup help to liquefy the mucus. This in turn promotes mucus drainage, which is essential to unblock the sinuses. Giving piping hot tea 3-4 times in a day to children is an effective remedy to get relief from sinusitis.

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    Pain Or Pressure In Your Sinuses

    Facial pain is a common symptom of sinusitis. You have several different sinuses above and below your eyes, as well as behind your nose. Any of these air-filled cavities can hurt when you have a sinus infection.

    Inflammation and swelling can cause your sinuses to ache with dull pressure. This is because inflammation may alter the typical path of mucus from the nose to the back of the throat.

    You may feel pain in:

    • your forehead
    • on either side of your nose
    • in your upper jaws and teeth
    • between your eyes

    This may lead to a headache. Headaches caused by sinus infections can occur where the sinuses are or in other places.

    What Are The Symptoms Of Pediatric Sinusitis

    The following symptoms may indicate a sinus infection in your child:

    • A cold lasting more than 10 to 14 days
    • Low- or even high-grade fever
    • Thick yellow-green nasal drainage for at least three days in a row
    • Post-nasal drip, sometimes with sore throat, cough, bad breath, nausea and/or vomiting
    • Headache, usually in children age six or older
    • Irritability or fatigue

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    Saline Spray Bottles Are More Kid

    However, most children do not like the sensation of the neti pot, so its best not to use the device with them. A saline spray bottle, or, for very young children, an eyedropper, is best, Rolnick says. Fine mist saline sprays from brands such as Simply Saline and Little Noses are sold in most drugstores.

    Alternatively, you can make your own solution. Begin by buying water labeled distilled or by boiling tap water for three to five minutes, then cooling to room temperature. This will avoid the rare possibility of introducing a parasite into your childs sinuses.

    The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology suggests this recipe: Mix 1 cup of the cool sterilized water with 3 teaspoons of non-iodide salt , and 1 tsp of baking soda.

    Fill the spray bottle or eyedropper with the liquid and either squirt it into your childs nose or lie your young child on the back and drip the liquid in. Keep tissues nearby to catch the liquid after it drains out.

    Vaccine Effectiveness & Omicron

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    Expert studies have shown that the risk of severe illness from Covid-19 is reduced by 90 percent or more among people who are fully vaccinated.

    While there are breakthrough cases of Covid among people who are vaccinated, they are rare.

    In the event of a breakthrough case, victims are highly unlikely to be hospitalized with severe or deadly symptoms from the virus.

    Health officials have advised that the Omicron variant is more infectious and could lead to further breakthrough cases.

    Yet the spread can be offset by all vaccinated Americans receiving a booster shot.

    Current vaccines are expected to protect against severe illness, hospitalizations, and deaths due to infection with the Omicron variant.

    With other variants, like Delta, vaccines have remained effective at preventing severe illness, hospitalizations, and death.

    Studies have also shown that side effects from the vaccine are extremely rare.

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    How Is Sinusitis Treated

    Doctors may prescribe oral antibiotics to treat sinusitis caused by . Some doctors may recommend decongestants and antihistamines to help ease symptoms.

    Sinusitis caused by a usually goes away without medical treatment. Acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and/or warm compresses can help reduce any pain. Over-the-counter saline solution is safe and helps wash the nose and relieve many symptoms caused by allergies, viruses, and bacteria.

    Will My Child Need Surgery For His Or Her Sinus Infection

    If infections recur frequently, are persistent, or are particularly severe, despite medication, then surgery may help. Three types of operations are usually considered:

    • Adenoidectomy refers to removal of adenoid tissue at the back of the nose.
    • The adenoids are not part of the sinuses but can harbor infection and contribute to persistent symptoms. Studies show that removing the adenoids can help clear the sinuses. Adenoid removal is performed safely with minimal or no bleeding using devices such as the Coblator® which Dr. Lau is experienced with. The procedure is a day surgery or with an overnight stay.
    • Sinus washout is a simple procedure often combined with adenoidectomy for recurrent or persistent sinus infection. It involves puncturing the sinus through the nose with a special cannula. In adults this can be carried out under local anesthetic but in children general anesthetic is needed. The procedure has an advantage of allowing collection of infected secretions to determine the cause of infection. Sinus washout can be combined with balloon sinuplasty which uses a balloon to widen the sinus drainage opening.
    • Endoscopic sinus surgery is another surgical option usually reserved for if adenoidectomy and sinus washout do not resolve the problem . Endoscopic sinus surgery is a minimally invasive camera-directed technique to clean out the sinuses through the nose. There is a potential for affecting facial growth so this surgery is usually reserved for very severe cases.

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    What Causes Sinusitis In A Child

    When the sinuses are blocked with discharge, bacteria may start to grow. This leads to a sinus infection or sinusitis.

    The most common bacteria that cause acute sinusitis include:

    • Streptococcus pneumonia

    • Pain or soreness over sinuses

    • Fever

    • Loss of smell

    The symptoms of sinusitis can seem like other health conditions. Make sure your child sees their healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

    How The Sinuses Work

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    A basic knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the nose and sinuses is necessary to understand nasal and sinus disorders.

    The nose and sinuses are a part of the upper respiratory tract. The three-dimensional anatomy of this area is complex. The function of the nose in addition to smell is to warm, humidify and filter air that passes through it. The external nose consists of a bony and cartilaginous framework. The nostrils, or anterior nares, form the external opening to the nose. The nasal septum is a midline internal structure that separates the left and right nasal cavities. It is composed of cartilage and bone. A deviated nasal septum can cause nasal obstruction.

    There are four sets of paired sinuses. The maxillary sinuses are located beneath the cheeks and under the eyes. The frontal sinuses are above the eyes behind the forehead. The ethmoid sinuses are honeycomb-shaped sinuses located between the eyes, and the sphenoid sinuses are located behind the nose and below the brain. Each of these sinuses is an enclosed space that drains through an ostium, or opening, into the nose. The sinuses are lined by mucosa that is similar to the lining of the nose. These ostia can become blocked by inflammation or swelling of the mucosa as well as by tumors or bony structures.

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    How Is Sinusitis Diagnosed In A Child

    The healthcare provider will ask about your childs symptoms and health history. He or she will give your child a physical exam. Your child may also have tests, such as:

    • Sinus X-rays. An X-ray exam of the sinuses may help with the diagnosis.

    • CT scan of the sinuses. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body. They are more detailed than X-rays.

    • Cultures from the sinuses. A swab of discharge from the nose may be taken. The sample is checked for bacteria or other germs.

    How Do I Know If My Child Has A Sinus Infection

    • A cold does not go away after 10-14 days
    • Your childs nose is persistently stuffy
    • There is thick nasal discharge
    • Cough, sore throat, bad breath or vomiting occur because of nasal back-drip
    • Your child complains of headache or facial pain
    • There are symptoms like irritability, fatigue, swelling round the eyes, and low grade fever

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    Treatment For Sinus Infections In Children

    Specific treatment for sinusitis will be determined by your childs physician based on:

    • Your childs age, overall health, and medical history
    • Extent of the infection
    • Your childs tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
    • Expectations for the course of the infection
    • Your opinion or preference

    Treatment of sinusitis may include the following:

    • Antibiotics, as determined by your childs physician
    • Acetaminophen
    • A decongestant
    • Cool humidifier in your childs room
    • Nasal spray to reduce inflammation
    • Medications to treat GERD
    • Surgery to remove the adenoids
    • Endoscopic sinus surgery

    Antibiotics may be withheld for 10 to 14 days, unless severe symptoms develop, such as: fever, facial pain or tenderness, or swelling around the eye. Surgery should be considered only if other treatments have failed.

    Referral to an allergist/immunologist is often needed, particularly for people with chronic or recurrent sinusitis and for patients who have had sinus surgery, but still experience sinusitis.

    Antihistamines do not help the symptoms of sinusitis unless an allergy is involved.

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