Pneumonia Treatment Depends On The Kind You Have
How to fight pneumonia is based on the type youre diagnosed with. For bacterial pneumonia, youll be given antibiotics to treat the infection. Unfortunately, treatment for viral pneumonia isnt always so easy: You may be given antiviral medication, but you also might be instructed to ride out the virus at home. If this is the case, you may be told to take over-the-counter pain or fever medications, drink hot fluids and get plenty of rest.
If your pneumonia is severe and requires a hospital stay, you may get fluids through an IV and oxygen therapy to help you breathe. People with the most severe cases may be put on a ventilator. Most people will recover from pneumonia, although symptoms can linger for weeks.
How Does Cpap Cause Pneumonia
CPAP has some components that make it more comfortable to use, such as the heated humidifier and tubing. They make the air warm and moist to prevent the mouth and nose from being dry.
The problem is that certain organisms thrive in a humid environment, such as fungus, yeast, and mold. All of these can be harmful to the patient and cause irritation and even infection in the lower respiratory tract.
As the CPAP machine uses air pressure to blow air into the body, these organisms can go straight to your lungs and can cause bronchitis, respiratory, and sinus infections.
Apart from these pathogens, aspiration can also cause CPAP pneumonia. Aspiration happens when you inhale something apart from air, such as saliva and mucus. Sleep apnea increases aspiration because the airway blockage lets liquids go into the lungs and impairs the cough reflex.
When the fluids enter the lungs, the bacteria in them can lead to infection and developing pneumonia.
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Pain Or Pressure In Your Sinuses
Facial pain is a common symptom of sinusitis. You have several different sinuses above and below your eyes, as well as behind your nose. Any of these air-filled cavities can hurt when you have a sinus infection.
Inflammation and swelling can cause your sinuses to ache with dull pressure. This is because inflammation may alter the typical path of mucus from the nose to the back of the throat.
You may feel pain in:
- your forehead
- on either side of your nose
- in your upper jaws and teeth
- between your eyes
This may lead to a headache. Headaches caused by sinus infections can occur where the sinuses are or in other places.
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When To Seek Help For Covid
Anyone who has or may have COVID-19 should and rest. However, if any of the following issues develop, the person may need immediate care:
- breathing problems
- a pale or bluish tinge to the lips, nail beds, or skin
If any of the above arise, call 911 or take the person to a local emergency facility. Call ahead to let them know that the person arriving may have COVID-19.
It is not always possible to prevent a URI, but taking the following precautions can help:
- covering the mouth and nose when sneezing and coughing
- avoiding cigarette smoke
Bacteremia And Septic Shock
If bacteria caused your pneumonia, they could get into your blood, especially if you didn’t see a doctor for treatment. It’s a problem called bacteremia.
When your blood pressure is too low, your heart may not be able to pump enough blood to your organs, and they can stop working. Get medical help right away if you notice symptoms like:
Your doctor will likely treat your lung abscesses with antibiotics. They may do a procedure that uses a needle to remove the pus.
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Types Of Pneumococcal Infection
Pneumococcal infections usually fall into one of two categories:
- non-invasive pneumococcal infections these occur outside the major organs or the blood and tend to be less serious
- invasive pneumococcal infections these occur inside a major organ or the blood and tend to be more serious
Non-invasive pneumococcal infections
Non-invasive pneumococcal infections include:
- sinusitis infection of the sinuses
Invasive pneumococcal infections
- bacteraemia a relatively mild infection of the blood
- osteomyelitis infection of the bone
- pneumonia infection of the lungs
- meningitis infection of the meninges
What Are The Different Types Of Sinus Infections
Most sinus infections are caused by viruses, and theyll usually go away on their own. In fact, if the infection doesnt clear up after a week to 10 days, it can be an indication that its caused by bacteria. It may have started as a bacterial infection, or a viral infection may develop into a bacterial infection after your sinuses become filled with fluid and bacteria then forms.
If you have sinus infections that seem to clear up only to shortly return, you probably have a bacterial infection. Thick, dark, or greenish-yellow nasal discharge is another indication, but your doctor can perform tests to verify the type of infection if needed.
Sinus infections can also be classified as acute or chronic. Acute infections usually start suddenly with symptoms such as a runny, stuffy nose and facial pain and can last up to four weeks. Chronic sinusitis occurs when your infection persists for at least 12 weeks despite attempts to treat it.
In the short term, a sinus infection can cause a long list of symptoms, including the following:
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Does Sleep Apnea Cause Pneumonia
Several studies found that CPAP equipment can develop pneumonia.
The connection between sleep apnea and pneumonia depends on factors such as age and other existing medical conditions. Also, people with more severe sleep apnea are at a higher risk of pneumonia than those with mild sleep apnea cases.
A nationwide population-based study published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal found that 9% of the study group with sleep apnea developed pneumonia .
Researchers behind this study believe sleep apnea patients find it more difficult to cough mucus in case of lung infection, which leads to higher aspiration.
Patients with obstructive sleep apnea were reported to have a higher risk of pulmonary aspiration of pharyngeal contents during sleep. Moreover, immune perturbations secondary to disrupted sleep may render them susceptible to invasion of pathogens. Both could potentiate the emergence of pneumonia. Sleep apnea and risk of pneumonia: a nationwide population-based study
Another study done on 34,100 patients over the course of 11 years found that 8.09% of subjects developed pneumonia.
The researchers found theres a 20% increase in pneumonia risk for subjects who were using a CPAP machine . Considering that pneumonia can have a fatal outcome, this is a big increase.
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What Are Fungal Sinus Infections And How Do They Occur
Fungal sinus infections are a rare type of sinusitis caused by fungi.
Fungal spores or mold are often present in the sinuses, and we breathe these spores in and out all the time. The sinuses, which consist of moist, dark cavities, are the perfect home for fungi, which don’t require sunlight for food.
Fungal sinus infections are more common in people with a weakened immune system , uncontrolled diabetes, and prolonged use of antibiotics.
Fungal sinusitis can either be noninvasive or invasive, with the latter class spreading beyond the sinuses to also infect such areas as bone and blood vessels. Invasive fungal sinusitis may be chronic.
Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common fungus associated with fungal sinusitis. It is responsible for both acute fungal sinusitis in people with healthy immune systems and chronic invasive fungal sinusitis in people with immunocompromised systems .
Other Aspergillus species, including Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger, can also cause acute sinusitis in healthy immune systems. These acute forms of sinusitis usually result from a “fungal ball” .
Some people experience a type of fungal infection called allergic fungal sinusitis, which experts believe is an allergic reaction to fungi in the air.
Fungal genuses associated with allergic fungal sinusitis include Alternaria, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Chrysosporium, Drechslera, and Exserohilum.
But numerous other fungi can also cause infection, including:
- Schizophyllum commune
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Cold Vs Sinus Infection
A cold is an infection caused by a virus that finds a home in your upper respiratory system, including your nose and throat. Over 200 different viruses are capable of causing a cold, though most of the time a type of rhinovirus, one that primarily affects the nose, is the culprit.
Colds can be so mild you may only have symptoms for a few days, or a cold can hang on for weeks.
Because a common cold is caused by a virus, it cant be effectively treated with antibiotics. Some medications can help reduce symptoms, but rest is usually the main way to beat a cold virus.
A sinus infection causing inflammation of the sinuses, also known as sinusitis, is commonly caused by a bacterial infection, though it can be caused by a virus or fungus .
In some cases, you can develop a sinus infection following a common cold.
A cold can cause the lining of your sinuses to become inflamed, which makes it difficult for them to properly drain. That can lead to mucus becoming trapped in the sinus cavity, which, in turn, can create an inviting environment for bacteria to grow and spread.
You can have an acute sinus infection or chronic sinusitis. An acute sinus infection tends to last for less than a month. Chronic sinusitis lasts for more than three months, and symptoms may regularly come and go.
Among the symptoms shared by a cold and sinus infection are:
- fever, though with a cold, it tends to be a low-grade fever
- fatigue, or lack of energy
Pleural Effusions Empyema And Pleurisy
There are two layers of tissue surrounding your lungs called the pleura. One wraps around the outside of your lungs and the other lines the part of your chest where your lungs sit. They help your lungs move smoothly when you breathe.
If your pneumonia isn’t treated, the pleura can get swollen, creating a sharp pain when you breathe in. If you don’t treat the swelling, the area between the pleura may fill with fluid, which is called a pleural effusion.
If the fluid gets infected, it leads to a problem called empyema. Tell your doctor if you are having any of these symptoms:
- Hard time breathing
- You don’t want to breathe deeply because it hurts
For pleural effusions and empyema, your doctor may suggest a procedure that removes fluid from your body with a needle. Antibiotics are also an option to treat empyema.
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When To Seek Medical Care
See a doctor if you have:
- Severe symptoms, such as severe headache or facial pain.
- Symptoms that get worse after initially improving.
- Symptoms lasting more than 10 days without improvement.
- Fever longer than 3-4 days.
You should also seek medical care if you have had multiple sinus infections in the past year.
This list is not all-inclusive. Please see a doctor for any symptom that is severe or concerning.
Other conditions can cause symptoms similar to a sinus infection, including:
- Seasonal allergies
Runny Nose And Postnasal Drip
When you have a sinus infection, you may need to blow your nose often because of nasal discharge, which can be cloudy, green, or yellow. This discharge comes from your infected sinuses and drains into your nasal passages.
The discharge may also bypass your nose and drain down the back of your throat. You may feel a tickle, an itch, or even a sore throat.
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Does Sinusitis Lead To Bronchitis Or Asthma
Sinusitis, both acute and chronic, if not adequately treated can lead to bronchitis and sometimes pneumonia. Although it is not the cause for asthma, it can lead to asthma exacerbations. Sinus infections are infections of the upper respiratory tract, and generally lead to symptoms that include headaches, sinus pressure, discolored nasal mucus, and nasal congestion. In certain patients, however, the infection can result in lower respiratory symptoms such as cough and chest congestion, eventually turning into bronchitis, sometimes even pneumonia.
This typically occurs from infected post nasal drainage entering the lungs. While this method of spread can happen in anyone, it is more common in patients with underlying comorbidities and the immunocompromised. While acute sinusitis is common and easily treated by your primary care physician, chronic sinusitis often requires specialized treatment for resolution.
At CCENT & Sinus we specialize in treating patients with chronic sinusitis.
Other Sources Of Pneumonia
Transplant recipients with altered pulmonary anatomy specifically lung transplant recipients with bronchial anastomotic stricturesmay be at risk for obstruction of the airways, atelectasis, and postobstructive pneumonia. The associated pneumonias tend to be polymicrobial in nature including GNB, staphylococci, and anaerobes and may require relief of the obstruction to achieve adequate antimicrobial effects, even if appropriate antibiotics are selected. This is often most rapidly achieved through interventional bronchoscopic techniques such as bronchial dilation with or without stent placement.
The lungs may also become infected via septic emboli arising from suppurative endovascular bacterial and, less commonly, fungal infections. Infected intravascular septic deep venous thrombi are increasingly recognized as a potential source of infection in immunosuppressed patients. The radiographic pattern in these patients is distinctive and includes multicentric, pleomorphic lung nodules with asymmetric, relatively small, thick-walled cavities.
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Symptoms Of A Sinus Infection
The primary symptoms of a sinus infection could be initially mistaken for the common cold, including a stuffed up nose and a decrease in your senses of taste and smell. However, other symptoms such as pain or pressure around the sinuses, achy teeth, and thick yellow or green mucus indicate that your cold has progressed into a sinus infection. Additionally, cold symptoms that last longer than a week may be a sign you have sinusitis. Other symptoms associated with a sinus infection include:
- Phlegm-producing cough or a cough that gets worse at night
What Is The Common Cold
The common cold refers to at least 200 different viruses that cause a cold. Colds often go away on their own. Colds can:
- Occur at any age.
- Have a wide range of symptoms.
- Spread through direct contact with respiratory secretions, like saliva, mucus or phlegm.
- Last about seven to 10 days, though a cough can last up to three weeks.
- Lead to complications such as ear infections, eye infections, sinus infections and pneumonia.
Treating a cold can help you feel better:
- Use acetaminophen if you have body aches and fever.
- Stay hydrated. Make sure to drink a lot, especially fluids such as water, tea and broth.
- Get plenty of rest.
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Sinusitis Bronchitis Acute Asthma Attacks
Breathing is a necessary function for life breathing well is necessary for comfort and well-being. In the busy daily lives, we all lead, there is a tendency sometimes to try to pass off respiratory problems as “just a cold” or “just an allergy””. Ignoring symptoms that are meant to tell us that we may be suffering from sinusitis, bronchitis or an acute asthma attack can be dangerous and harmful to others as some of these conditions are contagious. Sinusitis, bronchitis, and acute asthma attacks are related problems but remain separate medically, which is one of the reasons to seek professional care for an early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
How Can I Prevent Upper Respiratory Infections
Keep you and your family healthy. Take steps to prevent upper respiratory infections:
Practice good hygiene:
- Wash hands, especially before eating or preparing food.
- Sneeze and cough into your arm or a tissue and wash hands after.
Live a healthy lifestyle:
- Keep up with routine checkups and immunizations.
- Ask your provider if you should get the pneumococcal vaccine, which prevents pneumonia.
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Is The Flu An Upper Respiratory Infection
Influenza, or the flu, isnt considered an upper respiratory infection. Thats because its systemic it affects more than one system in the body. It usually affects the upper and lower respiratory system. The cold and flu have similar symptoms.
The flu often comes along with symptoms such as achiness and a high temperature, in addition to upper respiratory symptoms like a cough and sore throat. See your healthcare provider if you think you may have the flu. You can take steps to prevent the flu, such as getting the flu vaccine every year.
From Walking Pneumonia To Covid
When youre sick, it can be hard to diagnose yourself: Do you have a cold? The flu? COVID-19? Bronchitis? Or, could it be pneumonia?
Pneumonia is a potentially serious condition: An estimated 1 million adults in the United States seek care in a hospital due to pneumonia every year, and 50,000 die from it.
Pneumonia causes inflammation, fluid or pus to build up in the air sacs of the lungs, which are called alveoli, explains Carrie Ward, MD, a primary care physician at Keck Medicine of USC and assistant professor of clinical medicine at the Keck School of Medicine of USC. The alveoli are responsible for air exchange, and when they fill with fluid or are inflamed, they cant effectively do their job, and the body receives less oxygen.
Heres what you need to know about pneumonia, including when to see a doctor.
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